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Biomechanics of the Eye

Product code : 1578458311

by C.J. Roberts (Author), W.J. Dupps Jr. (Author), J.C. Downs (Author)

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    Biomechanics of the Eye

    by C.J. Roberts (Author), W.J. Dupps Jr. (Author), J.C. Downs (Author)

    Biomechanics is the study of the mechanical interaction of solids and/or fluids with internal and external forces in the context of biology. It has long been a mainstay in the cardiovascular and orthopedic fields, where it has been used to analyze and predict the mechanical and biological mechanisms underlying bone fractures, hard and soft tissue remodeling, and blood flow through arterial stents and aneurysms. Biomechanical techniques are critical in optimizing cardiac and orthopedic implant designs for maximum clinical efficacy and life.

    Ocular biomechanics has been primarily focused on diseases of the cornea, trabecular meshwork, sclera, and optic nerve head, with more limited application in the vitreous, lens, and iris. It has provided insight into disease processes and surgical outcomes in various eye disorders. For example, in glaucoma, ocular biomechanics has been used to analyze and predict the importance of the sclera in determining the biomechanics of the lamina cribrosa, the site of axonal damage in glaucoma. In the cornea, the science of biomechanics has been used to better understand the structural basis of corneal ectatic diseases and to develop biomechanically mediated treatments for keratoconus that have already resulted in a global reduction in the number of corneal transplants required for this disease.

    Biomechanical engineers use cutting-edge engineering-based computational and experimental techniques to investigate the interaction of ocular tissues with their surroundings, as well as the forces that are common in the eye: intraocular pressure, tensile and torsional muscle tractions, blood flow and vascular pressures, external traumatic forces, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, and tissue growth pressures. The tools bioengineers use include finite element modeling, a computational technique to split complex geometries into small regularly shaped elements, for which loading, mechanical stress (force distribution), and mechanical strain (local deformation) are calculated individually. The results of each of these simple elemental responses are then added up, or superposed, into the overall response of the structure. Measures of tissue deformation under load can now be obtained with imaging techniques, such as ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, Scheimpflug tomography, infrared corneal reflection monitoring, and magnetic resonance imaging, and these observations can be used to generate various approximations of biomechanical properties and validate computational biomechanics simulations. Many of these measurement technologies are being developed (or are already available) for in vivo and clinical applications.

    The structural geometries in the human body are much more complex than typical engineered structures, such as bridges and airplane wings. Biological tissue stiffness is inherently complex in that it changes with orientation (anisotropy), the rate of loading (viscoelasticity), and the level of stretch or compression (hyperelasticity). Computational models require accurate representations of tissue geometry, loading and constraints on the modeled structure, and compliance or stiffness of the tissue constituents. Whereas certain elements of the ocular anatomy such as the cornea are very accessible to measurement, measurements are more difficult to obtain in very small structures and more posterior ocular components. Important factors such as fluid pressures or blood flow are nearly impossible to measure using current technology. When accurate representations of the model inputs are unavailable, simple representative geometries coupled with simplifying assumptions on the loading and tissue material properties can still be used to construct models that reveal fundamental relationships regarding the responses of tissues to load.
     

    Product details

    • File Size: 65407 KB
    • Print Length: 544 pages
    • Page Numbers Source ISBN: 9062992501
    • Publisher: Kugler Publications (January 22, 2019)
    • Publication Date: January 22, 2019
    • Language: English
     
    • Note: FileType is PDF
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