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(Original PDF + Videos) 2022-2023 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 02: Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology

2022-2023 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 02: Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology

American Academy of Ophthalmology


Section 2 provides the essential scientific grounding for current ophthalmic practice with discussions about ocular anatomy, embryology, biochemistry and metabolism in the eye, and ocular pharmacology. A minor revision discusses the role of digital ophthalmology, as well as the application and future of artificial intelligence, plus machine learning.

Sidebars in each chapter highlight key points and important takeaway information which maximizes study time. Section 2 features genetics information, including an overview of appropriate uses for the latest genetic techniques. Plus, a chapter on imaging, with figures and tables covering relevant topics, including comparing MRI and CT scans and ordering imaging studies.

Three clinical videos (sample) and three interactive activities that aid your understanding are included. Both print and eBook users have access to the videos and interactive activities.

Upon completion of Section 2, readers should be able to:

  • Identify the bones making up the orbital walls and the orbital foramina
  • Identify the biochemical composition of the various parts of the eye and the eye’s secretions
  • Demonstrate how appropriate diagnosis and management of genetic diseases can lead to better patient care
  • Describe the features of the eye that facilitate or impede drug delivery
  • Describe the mechanisms of action of antibiotic, antiviral, and antifungal medications
  • Discuss the anesthetic agents used in ophthalmology

Section chair: Vikram S. Brar, MD
Last Major Revision: 2019-2020

Print: 568 pages

eBook: Read Academy eBooks online from nearly any computer, or download eBooks to your mobile device with the free Academy eBooks app. For eBook features, requirements and licensing, visit: aao.org/ebooks. Please allow up to 90 minutes for receiving an access key (via email) that will allow you to retrieve your eBook after purchase.

Print ISBN: 978-1-68104-542-9
eBook ISBN: 978-1-68104-568-9
Print & eBook ISBN: 978-1-68104-555-9

About the BCSC
The Academy’s Basic and Clinical Science Course™ is ophthalmology’s definitive source of clinical information. Practicing ophthalmologists and residents worldwide use the BCSC® to ensure the highest-quality patient care.

Each of the 13 volumes includes up-to-date clinical knowledge, concise information, tables, self-assessment questions with answers, photos and illustrations and opportunities for earning AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™.

Beginning with the 2013–2014 edition, the Academy and the European Board of Ophthalmology (EBO) have partnered to make the BCSC the standard text for all European ophthalmology training programs. The EBO now recommends the BCSC as the primary educational resource for European trainees and ophthalmologists studying for the annual EBO Diploma Exam.

CME Information
The American Academy of Ophthalmology is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The American Academy of Ophthalmology designates this enduring material for a maximum of 10 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.